Country Profile





Japan’s Paradox of Banknotes

While cash transactions in Japan have been declining for some time, albeit from a high base, the reduction in opportunities to pay in cash and the increased use of ‘stay at home consumption’ during the pandemic has accelerated this decline. At the same time the ratio of banknotes to GDP has risen very significantly.

Country Profile - February 10, 2022 midnight

Lessons Learnt Managing a Declining ATM Estate

As the number of ATMs and use declines, authorities face challenges relating to competition policy and appropriate regulations. The Bank of Finland is no exception and has written about their experience and the extensive academic work done on this topic.

ATMs - January 28, 2022 midnight

UK Moves to Sustain Cash

The UK is facing significant pressure on its cash infrastructure, sufficient to put access to cash on the political agenda. 2021 draws to a close with a major announcement that some of the largest UK banks will create a network of shared banking hubs to maintain cash facilities for communities where cash services have ended.

Bank Branch - December 21, 2021 midnight

Six Payment Megatrends Identified in South Africa

BankServ Africa builds and operates essential payment infrastructure in South Africa and 20 other countries. It operates as a utility with a mutual ownership structure of Nedbank, Absa Bank, the Standard Bank of South Africa and FirstRand Investment Holdings.

Country Profile - December 21, 2021 midnight

Post Offices and the Unbanked in the US

Post offices are often proposed as a solution to providing access to cash. The US Center for Monetary and Financial Alternatives have argued that this is to fundamentally misunderstand the case of the unbanked.

Country Profile - December 21, 2021 midnight

Cash & Payment Trends from Turkish Perspective

Turkey has a high rate of inflation and household demand for cash has been increasing steadily over the past ten years. The impact of the pandemic was, initially, a decrease in demand because of the shutdowns but, after vaccinations were introduced, demand recovered very quickly.

Country Profile - November 26, 2021 midnight

Impact of India’s Demonetisation on Output, Welfare and the Shadow Economy

On 8 November 2016 it was announced that from midnight that night the two top denominations in India would no longer be legal tender. These two denominations represented 86% of the cash in circulation. A discussion paper from Monash Business School reviews findings from new modelling of that event that investigated the impact of that action on aggregate output, welfare and the size of the shadow economy in India.

Country Profile - November 26, 2021 midnight