Staff Papers





Cash Usage and the Underground Economy

There is an assumption that cash is a driver of the shadow economy, but this is not proven by empirical evidence. Occasional paper 649 from the Banca d’Italia used the decision to increase the limit on cash usage from €1,000 to €3,000 in January 2016 in Italy as an opportunity to study what happened to cash and the shadow economy.

Staff Papers - November 26, 2021 midnight

‘Cash: a Roadmap to Sustainability’

With the UN Climate Change conference, COP 26, taking place through early November, we thought it would be appropriate to review the environmental work of stakeholders in the cash industry over the last few years.

Staff Papers - November 4, 2021 midnight

Cash and Payments During the Pandemic

Whilst we may all be tired of hearing about COVID-19 and its impact on just about everything to do with our everyday lives, it is important for those involved with cash and payments to examine its impact on cash and payments to date and perhaps, more importantly still, the implications for the future.

Free - November 4, 2021 midnight

The Future of Cash – A View from the Philadelphia Fed

The future of cash is, without doubt, the most discussed, presented and written about topic in the cash and retail payments industry during the last 10 years. The topic took on a new dimension with the arrival of COVID-19, the effects of which feature in a discussion paper, titled simply ‘The Future of Cash’.

Future of Cash - November 4, 2021 midnight

Bank of Canada Survival Analysis of Banknote Circulation

The Bank of Canada (BOC) has a Currency Inventory Management Strategy (IMS) based on its high-speed sorters that capture the image of every banknote, including the serial number, along with the date the banknote was created, shipped from the central bank’s distribution sites and returned to them.

Staff Papers - October 6, 2021 midnight

COP26: Where Does the Cash Industry Stand?

15 organisations across the entire cash cycle have contributed 61 separate case studies illustrating what they have done to reduce their environmental impact for a white paper which will be ready for the UN Climate Change conference (COP 26) starting 1 November. A further five organisations will be providing more examples.

Staff Papers - September 27, 2021 midnight

Cash and COP26

This November, COP26, the UN climate change conference, will take place in Glasgow. Cash & Payment News™ and its sister paper Currency News™ have started work on a paper, ‘Cash: a Roadmap to Sustainability’, ahead of the conference.

Staff Papers - June 22, 2021 midnight

The Flight to Cash in a Crisis

Gerhard Rösel and Franz Seitz have published a paper, ‘Cash and Crises: No Surprises by the Virus’, as a working paper for the Institute for Monetary and Financial Stability. This paper looks at cash usage across a number of key economies since the 1990s. It notes the trend towards cash being hoarded as a store of value, reflected an increasing proportion of cash in circulation being high value notes, but looks, in particular, at what happens to cash when there is crisis.

Staff Papers - April 12, 2021 midnight

CBDC Security and Convenience: a Major Challenge

Digital currency covers more than Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs), it extends to all the digital solutions from Bitcoin to Diem. Digital currencies store balances in anonymous electronic addresses.

CBDC - March 5, 2021 midnight